538 Assignment No 1 Autumn 2020


Q#1 Figure out Sir Syed Ahmed Khan efforts in evolving the idea of Muslim nationalization in India subcontinents. Why did he oppose the Indian National Congress? Discuss.

Ans:- Sir Syed Ahmed Taqvi container Syed Muhammad Muttaqi[1] KCSI (Urdu: سید احمد خان‎; 17 October 1817 – 27 March 1898), ordinarily known as Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, was an Islamic pragmatist,[2] Islamic reformer,[3][4] and logician of nineteenth century British India.[5][6] He is considered as the pioneer of Muslim patriotism in India and is generally credited as the dad of Two-Nation Theory which framed the premise of Pakistan movement.[7][8][9] Born into a family with solid obligations to the Mughal court, Ahmed examined the Quran and Sciences inside the court. He was granted a privileged LLD from the University of Edinburgh in

In 1838, Syed Ahmed entered the administration of East India Company and proceeded to turn into an adjudicator at a Small Causes Court in 1867, resigning from 1876. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, he stayed faithful to the British Raj and was noted for his activities in sparing European lives.[3] After the defiance, he wrote the booklet The Causes of the Indian Mutiny – a trying to investigate, at that point, of British approaches that he accused for causing the revolt. Accepting that the eventual fate of Muslims was compromised by the unbending nature of their conventional standpoint, Sir Ahmad started advancing Western–style logical instruction by establishing present day schools and diaries and sorting out Islamic business people.

In 1859, Syed set up Gulshan School at Muradabad, Victoria School at Ghazipur in 1863, and a logical society for Muslims in 1864. In 1875, established the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, the primary Muslim college in Southern Asia.[11] During his profession, Syed consistently called upon Muslims to steadfastly serve the British Raj and advanced the selection of Urdu as the most widely used language of every single Indian Muslim. Syed condemned the Indian National Congress.[12]

Syed keeps up a solid heritage in Pakistan and among Indian Muslims. He firmly impacted other Muslim pioneers including Allama Iqbal and Jinnah. His promotion of Islam’s realist (Muʿtazila) convention, and at more extensive, extremist reevaluation of the Quran to make it viable with science and innovation, keeps on impacting the worldwide Islamic reformation.[13] Many colleges and public structures in Pakistan bear Sir Syed’s name.[14]

Aligarh Muslim University praised its 200th birth century with much energy on 17 October 2017. Previous President of India Pranab Mukherjee was the boss guest.[15][16]

Try not to show the substance of Islam to other people; rather show your face as the adherent of genuine Islam speaking to character, information, resilience and devotion.

Syed Ahmed Taqvi ‘Khan Bahadur’ was conceived on 17 October 1817 in Delhi, which was the capital of the Mughal Empire in the decision seasons of Mughal Emperor Akbar II. Numerous ages of his family had since been exceptionally associated with the regulatory situation in Mughal Empire. His maternal granddad Khwaja Fariduddin filled in as Wazir (lit. Priest) in the court of Emperor Akbar Shah II.[17] His fatherly granddad Syed Hadi Jawwad canister Imaduddin held a mansab (lit. General)– a high-positioning regulatory position and privileged name of “Mir Jawwad Ali Khan” in the court of Emperor Alamgir II. Sir Syed’s dad, Syed Muhammad Muttaqi,[18] was by and by near Emperor Akbar Shah II and filled in as his own adviser.[19]

In any case, Syed Ahmad was conceived when his dad was territorial rebellions helped and drove by the East India Company, and the British Empire had lessened the degree and intensity of the Mughal state, decreasing its ruler to nonentity. With his senior sibling Syed Muhammad container Muttaqi Khan, Sir Syed was brought up in a huge house in a rich territory of the city. They were brought up in exacting understanding with Mughal respectable conventions and presented to legislative issues. Their mom Aziz-un-Nisa assumed a developmental function in Sir Syed’s initial life, raising him with inflexible order with a solid accentuation on current education.[20] Sir Syed was instructed to peruse and comprehend the Qur’an by a female guide, which was irregular at that point. He got a schooling conventional to Muslim honorability in Delhi. Under the charge of Lord Wellesley, Sir Syed was prepared in Persian, Arabic, Urdu and customary strict subjects.[21] He read crafted by Muslim researchers and scholars, for example, Sahbai, Rumi and Ghalib.[citation needed] Other mentors educated him in science, stargazing and Islamic jurisprudence.[22][23] Sir Syed was additionally skilled at swimming, wrestling and different games. He took a functioning part in the Mughal court’s social activities.[24]

Syed Ahmad’s senior sibling established the city’s first print machine in the Urdu language alongside the diary Sayyad-ul-Akbar.[citation needed] Sir Syed sought after the investigation of medication for quite a long while yet didn’t finish the course.[22] Until the demise of his dad in 1838, Sir Syed had carried on with a daily existence standard for a rich youthful Muslim noble.[22] Upon his dad’s passing, he acquired the titles of his granddad and father and was granted the title of Arif Jung by the sovereign Bahadur Shah Zafar.[25] Financial troubles shut down Sir Syed’s proper instruction, despite the fact that he kept on concentrating in private, utilizing books on an assortment of subjects.[24] Sir Syed accepted editorship of his sibling’s diary and dismissed proposals of work from the Mughal court.[24]


Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Justice Syed Mahmood, he was the primary Muslim to fill in as a High Court judge in the British Raj.

Having perceived the consistent decrease in Mughal political force, Sir Syed chose to enter the administration of the East India Company. He was unable to enter the English common assistance since it was distinctly during the 1860s that locals were admitted.[26] His first arrangement was as a Serestadar (lit. Assistant) at the courtrooms in Agra, liable for record-keeping and overseeing court affairs.[26] In 1840, he was elevated to the title of munshi. In 1858, he was named to a high-positioning post at the court in Muradabad, where he started taking a shot at his most renowned scholarly work.

Familiar with high-positioning British authorities, Sir Syed got close information about British pioneer governmental issues during his administration at the courts. At the episode of the Indian resistance, on 10 May 1857, Sir Syed was filling in as the central evaluation official at the court in Bijnor.[citation needed] Northern India turned into the location of the most extreme fighting.[27] The contention had left enormous quantities of regular people dead. Past focuses of Muslim force, for example, Delhi, Agra, Lucknow and Kanpur were seriously influenced. Sir Syed was by and by influenced by the viciousness and the consummation of the Mughal tradition among numerous other long-standing kingdoms.[citation needed] Sir Syed and numerous different Muslims accepting this as a thrashing of Muslim society.[28] He lost a few close family members who passed on in the brutality. Despite the fact that he prevailing with regards to saving his mom from the strife, she kicked the bucket in Meerut, attributable to the privations she had experienced.[27]

Social changes in the Muslim society were started by Abdul Latif who established “The Mohammedan Literary Society” in Bengal. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan set up the MAO College which in the long run turned into the Aligarh Muslim University. He restricted obliviousness, strange notions and underhanded traditions predominant in Indian Muslim society. He solidly accepted that Muslim society would not advance without the securing of western training and science. As time passed, Sir Syed started focusing on the possibility of businesslike innovation and began upholding for solid interfaith relations among Islam and Christianity.

Reasons for the Indian Revolt

Sir Syed upheld the British during the 1857 uprising, a job which has been scrutinized by certain patriots, for example, Jamaluddin Afghani. In 1859 Sir Syed distributed the booklet Asbab-e-Baghawat-e-Hind (The Causes of the Indian Revolt) in which he examined the reasons for the Indian revolt. In this, his most acclaimed work, he dismissed the basic idea that the intrigue was arranged by Muslim élites, who disliked the reducing impact of Muslim rulers. He accused the British East India Company for its forceful development just as the obliviousness of British government officials with respect to Indian culture. Sir Syed encouraged the British to designate Muslims to aid organization, to forestall what he called ‘haramzadgi’ (a disgusting deed, for example, the mutiny.[29]

Maulana Altaf Hussain Hali wrote in the life story of Sir Syed that:

“When Sir Syed arrived at Muradabad, he started to compose the leaflet named ‘The Causes of the Indian Revolt’ (Asbab-e-Baghawat-e-Hind), in which he put forth a valiant effort to free the individuals from India, and particularly the Muslims, of the charge of Mutiny. Disregarding the conspicuous threat, he made a bold and intensive report of the allegations individuals were making against the Government and declined the hypothesis which the British had imagined to clarify the reasons for the Mutiny.”[30]

At the point when the work was done, without hanging tight for an English interpretation, Sir Syed sent the Urdu variant to be printed at the Mufassilat Gazette Press in Agra. Inside half a month, he got 500 duplicates back from the printers. One of his companions cautioned him not to send the leaflet to the British Parliament or to the Government of India. Rae Shankar Das, an extraordinary companion of Sir Syed, implored him to consume the books instead of put his life in harm’s way.

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